RF Circuit Design [Christopher J. Bowick] on of RF design for engineers and advanced hobbyists are in Chris Bowick’s small, but powerful RF. Cover for RF Circuit Design Chris Bowick Components, those bits and pieces that make up a radio frequency (rf) circuit, seem at times to be taken for. Essential reading for experts in the field of RF circuit design and engineers needing a good reference. This book provides complete design procedures for.
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In fact, we could just say that the RF industry has changed quite a bit chria the days of Marconi and Tesla — both technological visionaries woven into the fabric of history as the men who enabled radio communications. Who could have envisioned that their innovations in the late 1 ‘s would lay the groundwork circkit the vesign creation of the radio — a key component in all mobile and portable communications systems that exist today? Or, that their contributions would one day lead to such a compelling array of RF applications, ranging from radar to the cordless telephone and everything in between.
Today, the radio stands as the backbone obwick the wireless industry. It was utilized in the United States weapons arsenal as well as for things like radar and anti-jamming devices.
By doing so — and perhaps without even fully comprehending the momentum its actions would eventually create — the FCC planted the seeds of what would one day be a multibillion-dollar industry. Today that industry is being driven not by aerospace and defense, but rather by the consumer demand for wireless applications that allow “anytime, anywhere” connectivity. For evidence of this fact, one needs look no further than the cellular handset. Today, nearly 2 billion people use mobile phones on a daily basis — not just for their voice services, but for circuuit growing number of social and mobile, data-centric Internet applications.
Thanks to the mobile phone and service telecommunications industry revolution, average consumers today not only expect pervasive, ubiquitous mobility, they are demanding it. But what will the future hold for the consumer RF application space? The answer to that chros seems fairly well-defined as the RF industry now finds itself rallying behind a single goal: In other words, the future of the RF industry lies in its ability to enable next-generation mobile devices to cross all of the boundaries of the RF spectrum.
Essentially then, this converged mobile deskgn would bring together traditionally disparate functionality e. Again, nowhere is the progress of the converged mobile device more apparent than with the cellular handset. It offers the ideal platform on which RF desifn and technologies can converge to deliver a whole host of new functionality and capabilities that, as a society, we may not even yet be able to imagine.
Movement in that direction has already begun. According to analysts with the Sesign Worldwide Mobile Phone Bowock service, the converged mobile device market grew an estimated 42 percent in for a total of over 80 million units. In the fourth quarter alone, vendors shipped a total of That’s a fairly remarkable accomplishment considering that, prior to the mid-nineties, the possibility of true RF convergence was thought unreachable.
The mixing, sampling and direct-conversion technologies were simply deemed too clunky and limited to provide the foundation necessary for implementation of such a vision. X Preface Regardless of how and when the goal bowicck true convergence desihn finally realized, one thing has become imminently clear in the midst of all the growth and innovation of the past twenty five years — the RF industry is alive and well.
More importantly, it is well primed for a future full of continuing innovation and market growth.
RF Circuit Design Chris Bowick
Of course, while all of these changes created a wealth of business opportunities in the RF industry, they also created new challenges for RF engineers pushing the limits of design further and further. Today, new opportunities signal new design challenges which engineers — whether experts in RF technology or not — will likely have to face. One key challenge is how to accommodate the need for multi-band reception rc cellular handsets.
Another stems from the need for higher bandwidth at higher frequencies which, in turn, means that the critical dimensions of relevant parasitic elements shrink. As a result, layout elements that once could be ignored e.
In response to these and other challenges, the electronics industry has innovated, and continues to innovate. Consider, for example, that roughly 25 years ago or so, bowici design automation EDA was just an infant industry, particularly for high-frequency RF and microwave engineering.
While a few tools were commercially available, rather than use these solutions, most companies opted to develop their own high-frequency design tools. Drsign the design process became more complex and the in-house tools too costly to develop and maintain, engineers turned to design automation to address their needs.
But the innovation doesn’t stop there. RF front-end architectures have and will continue to evolve desigh step with cellular handsets sporting multi-band reception.
Multi-band subsystems and shrinking element sizes have coupled with ongoing trends toward lower cost and decreasing time-to-market to create the need for tightly integrated RF front-ends and transceiver circuits.
These high levels of system integration have in turn given rise to single-chip modules that incorporate front-end filters, amplifiers and mixes. But implementing single-chip RF front-end designs requires a balance of performance trade-offs between bowic, interfacing subsystems, namely, the antenna and digital baseband systems.
Achieving the required system performance when implementing integrated RF front-ends means that analog designers must now work more closely with their digital baseband counterpart, thus leading to greater integration of the traditional analog-digital design teams.
Other areas of innovation bowickk the RF industry will come from improved RF power transistors that promise to give wireless infrastructure power amplifiers new levels of performance with better reliability and ruggedness. RFICs hope to extend the role of CMOS cicuit enable emerging mobile handsets to deliver multimedia functions from a compact package at lower cost.
Incumbents like gallium arsenide GaAs have moved to boeick voltages to keep the pace going. Additionally, power amplifier-duplexer-filter modules will rapidly displace separate components in multi-band W-CDMA radios. And, to better handle parasitic and high-speed effects on circuits, accurate modeling and back-annotation of ever-smaller layout elements will become critical, as will accurate electromagnetic EM modeling of RF on-chip structures like coils and interconnect.
Still further innovation will come from emerging technologies in RF such as gallium nitride and micro-electro-mechanical systems MEMS. In the latter case, these advanced micromachined devices are being integrated with CMOS signal processing and condi- tioning circuits for high-volume markets such as mobile phones and portable electronics. This is due to the technology’s small size, flexibility and performance advantages, all of which are critical to enabling the adaptive, multifunction handsets of the future.
It is this type of innovation, coupled with the continuously changing landscape of existing application and market opportunities, which has prompted a renewed look at the content in RF Circuit Design. It quickly became clear that, bowock order for this book to continue to serve its purpose as your hands-on guide to RF circuit design, changes were required.
RF Circuit Design: Christopher J. Bowick: : Books
As a result, this new 25 th anniversary edition comes to you with updated information on existing topics like resonant circuits, impedance matching and RF amplifier design, as well as new content pertaining to RF front-end design and RF design tools.
Many very busy people helped to make this update of Chris’s original book possible. Here are just a few of the main contributors — old friends and df — who gave generously of their time and expertise in the review of the RF Front-End chapter of this book: One of the most challenging tasks in preparing any technical piece is the selection of the right case study. This task howick made easier for me by the help of both Analog Devices, Inc.
This update would not have been possible without the help of Cheryl Ajluni — my co-author, friend, and former editor of Penton’s Wireless Systems Design magazine.
RF Circuit Design – Chris Bowick – Google Books
Additional thanks to Jack Browne, editor of Microwave and RF magazine, for his insights and content sharing at a critical juncture during my writing. Last but not least, I thank the two most important people to any published book author — namely the acquisition editor, Rachel Roumeliotis and the project manager, Anne B.
John Blyler This revised version of RF Circuit Design would rr have been possible were it not for the tireless efforts of many friends and colleagues, to all of whom I offer my utmost gratitude and respect.
Their technical contributions, reviews and honest opinions helped me more than they will ever know.
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To all of the folks at Elsevier who contributed in some way to this book — Anne B. McGee, Ganesan Murugesan and Rachel Roumeliotis — your work ethic, constant assistance and patience have been very much appreciated.
To Cindy Shamieh, whose excellent research skills provided the basis for many of the revisions throughout this version of the book — your efforts and continued friendship mean the world to me.
And last, but certainly not least, to John Blyler my friend and co-author — thank you for letting me share this journey with you. A capacitor is, after all, a capacitor — xhris it?
A 1 -megohm resistor cgris an impedance of at least 1 megohm — doesn’t it? The reactance of an inductor always increases with frequency, right? Well, as we shall see later in this discussion, fhris aren’t always as they seem. Capacitors at certain frequencies may bowivk be desifn at all, but may look inductive, while inductors may look like capacitors, ddesign resistors may tend to be a little of both.
In this chapter, we will dfsign the properties of resistors, capac- itors, and inductors at radio frequencies as they relate to circuit design. But, first, let’s take a look at the most simple component of any system and examine its problems at radio frequencies. Wirewound resistors, inductors, and axial- and radial-leaded capacitors all use a wire of some size and length either in their leads, or in the actual body of the component, or both.
Wire is also used in many interconnect applications in the lower RF spectrum. The behavior of a wire in the RF spectrum depends to a large extent on the chriz diameter and length.
Table lists, in the American Wire Gauge Bowik system, each gauge of wire, its corresponding diameter, and other characteristics of interest to the RF circuit designer. In the AWG system, the diameter of a wire will roughly double every six wire gauges. Thus, if the last six gauges and their corresponding diameters are memorized from the chart, all other wire diameters can be determined without the aid of a chart Example bpwick Skin Effect Bowidk conductor, at low frequencies, utilizes its entire cross-sectional area as a transport medium for charge carriers.
As the frequency is increased, an increased magnetic field at the center of the conductor presents an impedance to the charge carriers, thus decreasing the current density at the center of the conductor and increasing the current density around its perimeter. This increased current density near the edge of the conductor is known as skin effect. It occurs in all conductors including resistor leads, capacitor leads, and inductor leads. Thus, differ- ent conductors, such as silver, aluminum, and copper, all have different skin depths.
The net result of skin effect is an effective decrease in the cross- sectional area of the conductor and, therefore, a net increase in the ac resistance of the wire as shown in Fig. For copper, the skin depth is approximately 0. Or, to state it another way: Straight-Wire Inductors In the medium surrounding any current-carrying conductor, there exists a magnetic field.
If the current in the conductor is an alternating current, this magnetic field is alternately expanding and contracting and, thus, producing a voltage on the wire which opposes any change in current flow. This opposition to change is called self-inductance and we call anything that possesses this quality an inductor.
Straight-wire inductance might seem trivial, but as will be seen later in the chapter, the higher we go in frequency, the more important it becomes. Skin depth area of a cirrcuit. The inductance of a straight wire depends on both its length and its diameter, and is found by: This is shown in calculations of Example Solution From Table 1 -1the diameter of No.
Since 1 mil equals 2. Inductors will be discussed in greater detail later in this chapter.
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